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Trainers are DBS checked.


The purpose of a personal Trainer is to ensure their client gets the most benefit from their training regime that is practically possible. To enable this, the Personal Trainer has to fully understand the goals of their client but also need to establish the key lifestyle factors that could affect these goals being achieved.

Lifestyle factors such as, how many days a client has available to enable them to train, their eating habits, personal and business demands and sleeping patterns will all have a bearing on when and if training goals could be achieved. The Personal Trainer would need to take these elements into consideration and manage their clients’ expectations accordingly.

The principles of training are fully understood by the Personal Trainer and manage these on behalf of their client. Training is a slow and subtle process that cannot be rushed which leads to improved performance, physiological and psychological changes. With this in mind the training programme of structured exercise to achieve the clients goals need to incorporate the following principles;

  1. Overload

  2. Progressive
  3. Specificity
  4. Reversibility
  5. Adaptability
  6. Individuality
  7. Recovery
  8. Plateau

The above principles all have an effect on the training outcomes of a client and equally apply to a variety of exercises and disciplines (exercise to music, weight training, stretching, cardiovascular training etc).

The body has to work at a slightly higher level than it is accustomed, to enable it to make improvements. The Personal Trainer uses the FITT principles to design exercise programmes to enable their client’s to work at this slightly higher level.


Frequency – Number of sessions in a given period (how often).

Intensity – The level of work performed during an activity session (how hard).

Time – The duration of a given session (how long).

Type – The choice of activity (running, weight training, stretching).


Whilst continuing with the training programme devised by the Personal Trainer, the client’s body will be used in different ways meaning the muscle will need to adapt to this difference in use and growth/strength will occur.  This is the body’s ability to adapt to the specific training needs and is termed adaptability.


To develop the overload on the body the work level needs to progressively increase over time as the body would adapt to the initial overload. Progression can be achieved by;


Repetitions – Increase number of repetitions.

Resistance – Increase weight or changing leverage.

Rate – Change speed of exercise.

Rest – Reduce rest periods between sets.

Complexity – Change exercise movement pattern.


We are all individuals and as such the Personal Trainer has to take the client’s needs, likes and dislikes into consideration when devising a training programme.  Each programme is individually designed, has to be relevant and appropriate to allow a client to achieve the maximum benefit from the training based on the goals and required outcomes.

This refers to the exercise type to be specific to the clients’ overall goal as different exercises causes different body adaptions (sprint training may not be beneficial to the performance of a marathon runner). Each sport has its own muscular and movement characteristics and improvement in a particular sport or activity needs to be specific to these characteristics.



After training has been carried out, the client will require an appropriate period of time before the next training session to allow the muscles that have been worked to repair and adapt to the new demands that have been placed upon them.  Between training sessions the appropriate sleep and nutritional intake will have a bearing on the amount of adaptions the body makes.

Once a client has been training for a set period and achieved their initial goals, there is a tendency to stop with the training and adopt old habits.  However, what is required at this point is for the Personal Trainer to devise a maintenance programme to allow the body to sustain the adaption achieved to date.  If there is a decline in the maintenance programme, then gradual decline to adaptions achieved is likely.


During the design of a training programme the Personal Trainer will be looking to build in progression of the exercises to place greater demands on a client’s body to encourage adaptions and make advancements towards their goals. Sometimes these adaptions do not occur, when this happens Plateau is reached and to make further adaptions the Personal Trainer would need to stimulate the muscles into further adaptions by changing the exercise routine, in accordance with the FITT principles and shock the muscles by introducing a different range of movement to work the body.